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科技公司做的一切,内部人士透露社交程序故意让人上瘾

十一月 27th, 2019  |  新普京集团3522

  美国硅谷的内部人士告诉 BBC
,社交媒体公司故意让用户沉迷于他们的产品以从中获取经济利益。

原文地址

你对手机上瘾吗?相信很多人对于这个问题都不屑一顾,毕竟现在手机已经和生活紧紧捆绑在一起,多玩几个小时怎么了?但是今天美国硅谷的圈内人告诉BBC:我们本不应该花这么多时间在手机上的,但这里的科技公司在他们的平台上设计了多种多样的机制,为的就是让用户们上瘾!

图片 1图片源于:BBC英语

图片 2

在BBC最新一集《Panorama》节目中,他们对硅谷的员工进行了采访。前Mozilla和Jawbone的员工Aza
Raskin直言:“他们所做的事情就像把毒品撒到应用界面上一样,为的就是让你一次又一次地回来使用它。”

  Aza Raskin from the Centre for Humane Technology said social media
companies deliberately use addictive technology in their apps in order
to lure us in to spending as much time on their platforms as possible.

众多的社交网络让无数人上瘾,而有些人的上瘾程度堪比吸食海洛因。Facebook,Twitter等社交网络从它们建立的用户习惯中得到了无尽的经济价值,让人上瘾是手段,让人掏钱是目的。一开始,人们需要一定的诱因,外在的或者内在的,社交网络让无聊的生活有意思就是一个内在的诱因,属于潜意识和无理性的,当你打开应用时,它马上给你制造了期望,让你行动起来,上传图片得赞,评论有回应,制造各种奖励持续推动你参与。接下来让你掏钱的时间到了,因为你的期望值增加了,需要更进一步的刺激,而这些需要付费。最后如果你在社交网络中得到难以想象的快乐,那么你一定上瘾了。这可能也算是双赢,你得到了在别处没有的快乐,而社交网络得到了金钱。

那么科技公司为了让用户上瘾究竟有多努力呢?Aza
Raskin表示:“每块屏幕后面,通常会有超过1000名工程师在尽自己最大的努力让你对这款产品上瘾。”Raskin还强调,自己在2006年设计了“无限滚动”这一概念,现在已经变成了所有App的必备功能,因为它能够让用户一直刷下去。

  人文技术中心(Centre for Humane
Technology)的阿扎·拉斯金说,社交媒体公司故意在他们的应用程序中使用让人上瘾的技术,以吸引我们尽可能多地呆在他们的平台上。

社交网络帮助人们建立习惯才是巨大利润的最本质的来源。

对于“无限滚动”,Raskin坦言如果你没有给时间让你的大脑追上并拦下你的冲动,那么就会一直划动下去。“这一机制让用户在手机上花的时间远超必要,虽然我没有因此上瘾,但为此感到内疚”,Raskin遗憾地说,所以在他现在做的产品上,他加入了单色模式,就是为了减少App的吸引力。

  Aza Raskin invented the endless scroll – the app feature that means
you don’t have to click to get to the next page and can keep scrolling
for far longer than maybe necessary or healthy.

原文链接:https://magenta.as/

为什么会出现这种情况呢?Raskin表示很多设计师、工程师和产品经理的被聘请来就是干这个的,因为公司为了获得下一轮融资、为了提高股价,就必须让用户在产品上花更多时间,虽然一开始他们并不是想让用户沉迷其中,但久而久之却造成了沉迷。

  阿扎·拉斯金发明了无限下拉滚动的功能,这个应用程序功能意味着你不需要点击进入下一个页面,你可以无限地下拉页面,但滚动的时间可能比必要的或健康的标准长得多。

抄录:

2012年从Facebook离职的员工Sandy
Parakilas同意Raskin的说法:“社交媒体就像是老虎机,在Facebook的一年半中,我每天都感觉自己在戒烟。”

  Aza says he did not intend to hook users with it but says the
business model of many social media companies is designed to maximise
user time online. He says this encourages designers to come up with
technological tricks that hook users.

How Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest Hook Users

Parakilas还称:“这是一种商业模式,旨在吸引用户,让我们把更多生命浪费在这款应用上,然后把这种关注卖给广告商。”但是Facebook官方的说法却大相径庭:“我们是为了让用户更贴近自己的家人和朋友,还有他们关心的事情,在任何阶段这些东西都不应该成为让人上瘾的因素。”

  阿扎说他发明这个功能的目的不是为了勾住用户,但他表示,许多社交媒体公司的商业模式旨在让用户呆在线上的时间最大化。他说,这鼓励设计师们想出一些能吸引用户的技术诀窍。

The tactics that the best digital brands use to stay relevant in users’
minds and lives.

那么问题来了,前员工和公司的说法,谁才是真的呢?

  Sandy Parakilas, who was a platform operations manager at Facebook
in 2011 and 2012, said there was definitely an awareness that Facebook
was habit-forming when he worked at the company.

Type the name of almost any successful consumer web company into your
search bar and add the word “addict” after it. Go ahead, I’ll wait. Try
“Facebook addict” or “Twitter addict” or even “Pinterest addict,” and
you’ll soon get a slew of results from hooked users and observers
deriding the narcotic-like properties of these sites. How is it that
these companies, producing little more than bits of code displayed on a
screen, can seemingly control users’ minds? Why are these sites so
addictive, and what does their power mean for the future of the web?

对社交网络产生质疑的还有Facebook前员工Leah
Pearlman,她打造了“喜欢”功能,也就是我们常说的点赞。但之前她却因为这个功能深陷困扰:“我已经把自我价值建立在了被自己点赞的内容上,当我需要验证自己的想法,我会打开Facebook;当我感到孤单,我会打开Facebook……在我从公司离职之后,停用了一段时间Facebook,那时我才发现自己之前上瘾了。”

  桑迪·帕拉吉拉斯在 2011年和
2012年间担任脸书的平台运营经理,他说他在任期间,公司内部确实意识到脸书容易让用户上瘾。

We’re on the precipice of a new digital era. As infinite distractions
compete for our attention, companies are learning to master new tactics
to stay relevant in users’ minds and lives. Today, just amassing
millions of users is no longer good enough. Companies increasingly find
that their economic value is a function of the strength of the habits
they create. But as some companies are just waking up to this new
reality, others are already cashing in.

研究表明,过度使用社交媒体,其实和抑郁、孤独还有其他很多心理问题存在联系,比如英国青少年每周都会花18个小时在社交媒体上,Pearlman呼吁,所有意识到社交媒体存在问题的青少年应该尽快避开它。

  Facebook and Instagram have told the BBC that their apps are
designed to bring people together and that they never set out to create
addictive products.

First-to-Mind Wins

因为Facebook是不会放过你们的,该公司的联合创始人Sean
Parker在去年的一次演讲上就表示,他们计划让消耗掉用户更多时间,而利用的就是人类心理学上的漏洞。

  脸书和照片墙告诉
BBC他们的应用程序的设计理念是让人们聚在一起,而从未想开发让人上瘾的产品。

A company that forms strong user habits enjoys several benefits to its
bottom line. For one, it creates associations with “internal triggers”
in users’ minds. That is to say, users come to the site without any
external prompting. Instead of relying on expensive marketing or
worrying about differentiation, habit-forming companies get users to cue
themselves to action by attaching their services to the users’ daily
routines and emotions. A cemented habit is when users unconsciously
think, I’m bored, and Facebook instantly comes to mind. They think, I
wonder what’s going on in the world? and before rational thought kicks
in, Twitter is the answer. The first-to-mind solution wins.

不过Facebook还是为上面这个目标做了一下辩解:“我们正在与第三方行为研究公司合作,将产品中会对用户造成伤害的元素剔除,这会让用户在长时间使用的同时,接触到的都是正确、安全的东西。”

  词汇表

Manufacturing Desire

  deliberately 故意地

But how do companies create a connection with the internal cues needed
to form habits? They manufacture desire. While fans of Mad Men are
familiar with how the ad industry once created consumer desire during
Madison Avenue’s golden era, those days are long gone. A multiscreen
world, with ad-wary consumers and a lack of ROI metrics, has rendered
Don Draper’s big-budget brainwashing useless to all but the biggest
brands. Instead, startups manufacture desire by guiding users through a
series of experiences designed to create habits. I call these
experiences Hooks, and the more often users run through them, the more
likely they are to self-trigger.

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